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Osmoreceptors respond to solute concentrations of body fluids.Additionally, pain is primarily a chemical sense that interprets the presence of chemicals from tissue damage, or similar intense stimuli, through a nociceptor.
Finally, a proprioceptor is a receptor located near a moving part of the body, such as a muscle, that interprets the positions of the tissues as they move.
A third classification of receptors is by how the receptor transduces stimuli into membrane potential changes. Some stimuli are ions and macromolecules that affect transmembrane receptor proteins when these chemicals diffuse across the cell membrane.
A major role of sensory receptors is to help us learn about the environment around us, or about the state of our internal environment.
Stimuli from varying sources, and of different types, are received and changed into the electrochemical signals of the nervous system.
The central integration may then lead to a motor response.
Describing sensory function with the term sensation or perception is a deliberate distinction.
An exteroceptor is a receptor that is located near a stimulus in the external environment, such as the somatosensory receptors that are located in the skin.
An interoceptor is one that interprets stimuli from internal organs and tissues, such as the receptors that sense the increase in blood pressure in the aorta or carotid sinus.
Physical stimuli, such as pressure and vibration, as well as the sensation of sound and body position (balance), are interpreted through a mechanoreceptor.
Another physical stimulus that has its own type of receptor is temperature, which is sensed through a thermoreceptor that is either sensitive to temperatures above (heat) or below (cold) normal body temperature.