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Much teaching about race focuses on refuting biological racism, especially on rejecting (e).But rejecting (e) is not sufficient to undermine (g) normative social stratification.Ideologically asserted (a) physical, (b) ancestral, (c) geographical and (d) cultural differences among races may be real or imagined, and may be consequences of the system of social stratification itself.
This bibliography aims to identify a few exemplary works for each identified theme, concentrating on works that are representative of the literature, particularly suitable for teaching or for providing faculty with a background on the issues, and that are especially relevant for assessing the arguments for and against affirmative action policies.
For according to theories of cultural racism, racial groups superficially identified by (a) - (c) constitute (d) distinctive subcultures that foster different culturally valued and disvalued traits that both (f) cause and (g) justify social stratification by race.
Recent survey research indicates that most racially prejudiced Americans lean more towards cultural than biological racism.
Thus, attempts to undermine (g) by attacking (e) will not go very far.(2) Explain racial hierarchy without justifying it: According to theories of social construction, racial groups are artifacts of (f) social systems of subordination and inequality that are rationalized by racist ideologies.
Racial groups exist as elements of a social hierarchy of birth, although the racial concepts embedded in racist ideologies are fictitious (refer to nonexistent biological subspecies (e), or systematically distort the character or origins of purported cultural differences (d) among racial groups) and/or arbitrary (reify and naturalize arbitrary political boundaries in the real or imagined ancestral territories of origin of different "races").