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It is important in a proposal that the problem stand outthat the reader can easily recognize it.Sometimes, obscure and poorly formulated problems are masked in an extended discussion.
Statements of this sort are usually taken as indications that the writer is not really familiar with the literature.
In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point.
Jody Hanson began writing professionally in 1992 to help finance her second around-the-world trip.
In addition to her academic books, she has written for "International Living," the "Sydney Courier" and the "Australian Woman's Forum." Hanson holds a Ph.
In quantitative studies, one uses theory deductively and places it toward the beginning of the plan for a study. One thus begins the study advancing a theory, collects data to test it, and reflects on whether the theory was confirmed or disconfirmed by the results in the study.
The theory becomes a framework for the entire study, an organizing model for the research questions or hypotheses for the data collection procedure (Creswell, 1994, pp. In qualitative inquiry, the use of theory and of a line of inquiry depends on the nature of the investigation.
Because it frames the entire study, preparing a research problem statement is often the hardest part of writing a research proposal or thesis.
A research problem statement lays the foundation for work that needs to be done to correct a situation, in the case of international aid organizations, or presents a statement of research intent for a master’s or doctoral thesis.
In studies aiming at grounded theory, for example, theory and theoretical tenets emerge from findings.
Much qualitative inquiry, however, also aims to test or verify theory, hence in these cases the theoretical framework, as in quantitative efforts, should be identified and discussed early on.