This is also true for the methods, approaches and techniques used in marine mammal toxicology, despite the legal and ethical constraints when working with these animals.New and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology, both in exposure studies as well as in effect studies.
Contrasting results on the “two kinds” of Arctic knowledge questions exhibit strong demographic patterns.
Moreover, we see public awareness on some issues gradually rising over the years of these surveys, while on others it remains stubbornly flat. Lawrence Hamilton is professor of sociology and senior fellow at the Carsey School of Public Policy, University of New Hampshire.
Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)toxicology research.
This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now, highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research.
is a peer-reviewed journal sponsored by the European Association for Aquatic Mammals (EAAM), the Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums (AMMPA), and the International Marine Animal Trainers’ Association (IMATA).
publishes articles related to marine mammals (whales, dolphins, seals, fur seals, sea lions, walrus, dugongs, manatees, sea otters, and polar bears).It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health.Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year, the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux.A comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate over space and time can have a profound influence on the design and interpretation of marine mammal effect studies.This paper will provide a brief overview of past and current in vivo, in vitro and in silico research thereby stimulating future research opportunities in this topic (Fig.Although polar-knowledge survey questions might seem a narrow topic, these results highlight deeper characteristics of U. Over the past 25 years he has studied human-environment interactions around the circumpolar North, from Alaska to Greenland and the northern Atlantic.Much of his research involves collaboration between social and natural scientists, to investigate topics such as climate-linked migration in Arctic Alaska, fisheries crises in Iceland and Greenland, or the accuracy of predictions about sea ice.In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important.This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate over space and time.Some basic polar and Arctic knowledge questions, which link to people’s more general beliefs, are answered with reasonably good accuracy.But other basic questions that have answers not guessable from general beliefs tend to show lower accuracy or knowledge.