Students of art, literature, sociology, militaria, and any number of subjects will each find specific turning points pertinent to their topic of interest.
And I don't doubt that you, too, will see a particular event that strikes you as possessed of such towering importance that it defines the beginning or end of the medieval era for you.
Generally, the medieval era is divided into three periods: the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages.
Like the Middle Ages itself, each of these three periods lacks hard and fast parameters.
Modern scholars who have actually studied the time period would not so readily use the label, since passing judgment on the past interferes with a true understanding of the time and its people.
Yet the term is still somewhat apt for the simple reason that we know relatively little about events and material culture in those times.
The comment has been made that all historical eras are arbitrary definitions and, therefore, how the Middle Ages is defined really has no significance.
I believe that the true historian will find something lacking in this approach.
Now, as was reflected in the Italian Renaissance, a new regard for the value of the individual was growing.
By no means was late medieval nor early modern society a culture of equality, but the seeds of the idea of human rights had been sown.