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The increase has been higher in the semi-arid regions and lower in the coastal zone; the rate of change has increased since the 1970s.
Man suffers various environmental changes as a result of inappropriate agricultural practices coupled with unscrupulous destructions of various important elements in the environment.
Climate change is perhaps the most serious environmental threat to the fight against hunger, malnutrition, disease and poverty in Africa, mainly through its impact on agricultural productivity.
Food security is the outcome of food system processes all along the food chain; climate change will affect food security through its impacts on all components of global, national and local food system.
The definition of food security as adopted at the World Food Summit (WFS) in November 1996 says that; “food security exists when all people at all times have physical or economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” ( FAO, 1996).
Rough estimates suggest that over the next 50years or so climatic change will likely have a serious threat to meeting global food needs than any other constraints on agricultural system. Available evidence shows that climate change is global; sea level rose about 17 centimetres (6.7 inches) in the last century and the rate has doubled in the last decade, there has been a rise in the global temperature even though the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009, surface temperatures continue to increase, glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa, likewise its impacts but the most adverse effects will be felt mainly by developing countries, especially those in Africa, due to their low level of coping capabilities (Nwafor 2007; Jagtap 2007).
Nigeria is viewed as one of these developing countries (Odjugo, 2010).
The recent changes in the climate have been linked with the increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) on the atmosphere in addition to anthropogenic activities and support emissions of other artificial chlorocarbons (Olanrewaju, 2003).
Climate change is also believed to result from the effect of global warming on the environment.
Climate change often appears very esoteric but in Nigeria; it is real, Currently there is an increasing incidence of disease, declining agricultural productivity, and rising incidences of heat waves (Stringer et al., 2009).
The threat that climate change poses to agricultural production does not only cover the area of crop husbandry but also includes livestock and in fact the total agricultural sector.