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The ice sheets have been retreating since the end of the last Ice Age about 11,700 years ago, but the last century's warming has hastened their demise.A 2016 study found that there is a 99 percent chance that global warming has caused the recent retreat of glaciers; in fact, the research showed, these rivers of ice retreated 10 to 15 times the distance they would have if the climate had stayed stable.
When carbon dioxide reacts with seawater, it leads to a decline in p H, a process known as ocean acidification.
Increased acidity eats away at the calcium carbonate shells and skeletons that many ocean organisms depend on for survival.
Meanwhile, 2014 research finds that many areas will likely see less rainfall as the climate warms.
Subtropical regions, including the Mediterranean, the Amazon, Central America and Indonesia will likely be hardest hit, that study found, while South Africa, Mexico, western Australia and California will also dry out.
According to the National Centers for Environmental Information, extreme snowstorms in the eastern United States have become twice as common since the early 1900s.
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Again, warming ocean temperatures lead to increased evaporation of moisture into the atmosphere.
The main driver, the researchers found, is the increasing evaporation of water from hotter and hotter soil.
Much of the precipitation that does fall in these arid regions will be lost.
Fall and winter ice in the Arctic hit record lows in both 20, meaning the ice expanse did not cover as much of the open sea as previously observed.
According to NASA, the 13 smallest maximum winter extents of sea ice in the Arctic have all happened in the last 13 years.