Many people are concerned about what the last phase of their lives will be like, not merely because of fears that their dying might involve…… 2000;17-532 The committee then informs the family about the decision and, when the request is granted, discusses with the patient how he or she will go through the procedure of euthanasia or PAS. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring? If a person chooses to end life at the hands of Euthanasia, has settled all affairs, has been surrounded by family and friends at the time of death…… "In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia." The New York Times 1 March 1987: 7-13. "Ending a Life." The Boston Globe Magazine 14 March 1999: 13-21. The philosophy for example recognizes that more than one person is involved in the euthanasia process. Euthanasia, also termed assisted suicide, has colored the moral discussions of individuals since the time of early philosophers. How literally can, "(Physicians) First, Do No Harm" be taken. [Read More] Euthanasia The foremost contentious concern lately has been the issue of granting legal status to the right to die with dignity, or euthanasia. Simple way of distinguishing active and passive form of euthanasia is a mere difference between act and omission. On one side of the argument, organizations like the Hemlock Society have pushed for legislation that permits physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Euthanasia may result in a devaluation of life One of the main detriments is the way that the availability of euthanasia may devalue life; it can be easily forfeited when it is perceived as being of a lesser quality, the…… Numerous patients have included consideration of their family's emotional pain caused by prolonged terminal illness as a factor leading them to choose euthanasia (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. The accordance with fundamental interests means that one's decisions must be in accordance with one's fundamental values (Williams, 1976, in Werth 19). It might be argued that happiness is the supreme goal of all the human beings. It is a simplistic appeal on part of the patient to be provided with the necessary ways or assistance in putting an end to their own life.
[Read More] Bibliography: Arguments against euthanasia, BBC Ethics Guide, Retrieved September 29, 2010 from Arguments for euthanasia, BBC Ethics Guide, Retrieved September 29, 2010 from It is important to realize that this perspective is still highly prevalent in many countries, and that even the notion of euthanasia could be hugely offensive to some people, especially in sensitive situations such as end-of-life discussion. oncologists regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. When possible, the patient is asked to sign a declaration of will, which, together with a report on the procedure, will be included with his or her hospital records (Scheper 1994). Euthanasia There can be little doubt that most humans cherish life to the extent that they would choose immortality in a heartbeat, if that option was ever made available. The person in most physical distress is the one afflicted with illness and requiring euthanasia as a solution. In taking a view point, people usually choose a philosophy based on their personal ethic. (Miles, 2004) In fact, does prolonging pain serve the Oath to its original intent? (Vonnegut, 1999) This benevolent, unassuming medic made it his lifelong ambition…… Similar to the issue of death sentence or suicide, euthanasia is contentious as it entails killing an individual through a conscious decision. The other forms include voluntary euthanasia in which a person's consent is obtained for either…… These efforts have met with a degree of success in the United States; in 1994 Oregon passed the Death with Dignity Act allowing PAS. [Read More] An area of significant concern may be the way in which social divisions may impact on the practice of euthanasia. 897); but fewer overtly discuss the callous topic of monetary expense as a factor in that decision. 45) claims family concern is justified under some Buddhist and Hindu perspectives if the choice to take life is made out of compassion for Additionally, I believe: Voluntary euthanasia devalues life, like the disabled, the mentally incompetent, the terminally ill. It is against the various religious beliefs, including the Islamic faith, Buddhism, and certain Christian creeds. This argument makes suicide seem like the irrational solution in any given case because it brings about the end of life which in turn, precludes…… When life is made only of things which cause misery and it is clear that there is no hope for things to get…… There are various methods to go ahead with this process, which may involve giving the patient a certain form of drug, putting a halt to some kind of treatment that the patient was undergoing or any other means of assistance.
While this argument is admittedly built on subjective individual views of morality, it is still a very valid ethical view (Paterson 2003). Some debaters have called attention to the significant moral difference between terminating life by euthanasia/PAS and allowing death by the withdrawal of life-sustaining, cure-oriented but useless equipment and treatment. However, while this observation may undoubtedly be true, there is an unstated qualification. "Voluntary Active Euthanasia." The Hastings Center Report. What deontology does not recognize is the suffering of family members. Either they say that no one has the right to choose the time they die, or they say that it is based on the utility of the decision. This essay will discuss these manifestly arguable issues. (The right to a dignified death - need for debate) "Euthanasia" derived from the Greek term implying "good death" is some activity we perform or otherwise which results in, or is planned to result in death, to liberate a person from pain. [Read More] BIBLIOGRAPHY Article on Introduction, background, laws, prevalence and ethical concerns on Euthanasia, Msn Encarta Should Be Legal, The Guardian Newspaper, 12/9/2004 Euthanasia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Euthanasia comes from the Greek phrase meaning "good death," ("Euthanasia" 112). Retrieved April 6, 2016 from https://nih.gov/hmd/greek/greek_Nielsen, T. Guidelines for legalized euthanasia in Canada: A proposal. However, there is even a distinction between voluntary euthanasia and PAS: with PAS, the physician simply provides the means with which…… "Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring? In Oregon, where euthanasia is legal, Kaldjian (2001) found that of those requesting euthanasia, 60% indicated that one of the influences was a desire not to be a burden. Tucker and Steele mention that voluntary euthanasia consumers may consider the cost to their estate, but only in passing (2007, p. The attending doctor should have the final say over the treatment of the patient in keeping with the Hippocratic Oath . This form of providing an access to the person to commit suicide is referred to as assisted suicide where the doctor, physician or person in charge aids the person……
Other ethicists take a more moderate, middle view of the issue, arguing that the right to decide when to die does apply in certain instances, but that abuses are too easily allowed in the systems set up by many countries (Cohen-Almagor 2001). 43(5): 589-99 Emanuel EJ, Fairclough D, Clarridge BC, et al. Charles Mck Hann and other advocates advanced that respect for an autonomous and informed patient's request entitles his or her to respect for a request for help in dying (Gula 1999). And, that is, that humans will choose life only as long as it is imbued with dignity and vitality. Consequentialism also considers the suffering of family members, who are emotionally and mentally distressed by observing the long-term suffering of the ill person. Whether that person takes the extreme Kantian view or the utilitarian, they have made a decision that can have consequences for others besides themselves. This is occasionally known as "mercy killing." (Reflections on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide) Giving a legal sanction to euthanasia is a vital referendum upon the social standing of those incapacitated in America nowadays. (22 February, 2003) "Society should accept that euthanasia is a personal decision, report says." British Medical Journal. Retrieved from Accessed on 4 May, 2005 "Arguments against Euthanasia: Euthanasia is against the word and will of God." Retrieved from Accessed on 3 May, 2005 "Arguments against Euthanasia" Retrieved from on 3 May, 2005 'Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia" Retrieved from The various practices that fall under the general rubric of providing a person with the means for a "good death" include physician-assisted death, also referred to as physician-assisted suicide. Annals of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons in Canada, Vol. "Psychological Perspectives on Euthanasia and the Terminally Ill: An Australian Psychological Society Discussion Paper." Australian Psychologist 33.1 (1998): 1-11. Euthanasia is an emotionally charged topic of debate, and it is easy to lose sight of the facts when people talk about wanting to kill themselves for whatever reason. Confusion between euthanasia and other end- of-life decisions. Euthanasia The author of this report has been asked to answer a few brief questions and take a position on the subject of euthanasia. [Read More] Works Cited Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Introduction." Religious Invariably, those who are most likely to feel there are a burden will come from backgrounds where they will require a higher level of social support, often families of a lower social or economic status, which may also be aligned with ethnic minorities and lower education (Ward, 1980). Doctor- monitored palliative care can allow the affected patient to die in peace, in a natural course of death.
This paper argues that euthanasia is ethical and moral and moreover, notwithstanding objections from some individuals based on religious beliefs, is a perfectly honest and acceptable end to a life that is unwilling to go through a tortured and painful last few days. Retrieved from Why it Should Be Permitted Known as mercy killing in some quarters, euthanasia has over time become one of the most hotly debated issues. There is also the contention that is euthanasia was legalized in society it could easily be abused for other purposes. hile it can also be referred to as physician-assisted suicide, it's known as euthanasia because there are situations where the individual can't ask for it.
The Literature on Euthanasia -- Public Opinion Public opinion has varied over the years as to the morality and social acceptability of euthanasia. [Read More] Works Cited Abramson, Neil, Stokes, Jason, Weinreb, Neal J., and Scott, Clark. As with other controversial debates, many arguments have been presented both in support and in opposition of euthanasia with those actively involved in the debate basing their viewpoints mainly on ethical, medical as well as religious considerations. It would be very difficult in some cases to distinguish acts of compassion from murder (Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: The Current Debate). As one of the major issues in the medical field, there are various laws regarding euthanasia in almost every country. Euthanasia Debate Euthanasia is the practice of voluntarily ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering (Euthanasia.com/definitions).As Ronald Dworkin notes in his article, "Sex, Death, and the Courts," it is true that "millions of people think that doctors are murderers if they help patients, even those dying slowly in great pain, to kill themselves." Yet, the American Medical Association confirmed its longstanding opposition to euthanasia, "and most states have made assisting suicide a crime." (Dworkin, 1996) Individuals claim that the state has no right to poke its nose into what they do, behind closed curtains. "Assisted Suicide: What the Court Really Said." The New York Review of Books. Instead, physicians and scientists must grapple with a more difficult dilemma - whether life should be artificially prolonged in the first place. The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life. In this case, there would be little benefit to society as compared to the individual's right to be free from pain and to make autonomous decisions. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Thus, the two friends initially start out by presenting a view of euthanasia that is strongly ethical; euthanasia is a meaningful and sometimes even necessary means to alleviate unnecessary suffering. Bulow, H., Sprung, C., Reinhart, K., Prayag, S., Du, B., & Armaganidis, A. The world's major religions' points-of-view on end-of-life decisions in the intensive care unit. Buddhism offers Siddhartha and his journey into enlightenment. [Read More] Bibliography Active Euthenasia - A Kantian Perspective." Planet Papers. Euthanasia does contradict with the basic moral principle of…… Yet euthanasia often requires a physician's assistance. "Assisted Suicide: The Philosopher's Brief." The New York Review of Books. Despite the passing of the Physician Assisted Law (PAS) in Oregon and the legality of assisted suicide in the Netherlands, people generally frame euthanasia as a moral instead of a legal issue. According to Singer's utilitarianism, euthanasia is therefore the ethical choice. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…… Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. After all, life is already filled with enough suffering. While Christianity and Buddhism differ in how they respond to suffering, both are aware suffering is inevitable. The study indicates that there is a need for training in a number of clinical settings regarding care of the dying and futile treatments. oodman 110) Opponents of the right to die demonstrate an unwavering expression of the need for individuals to have as much time as they can with…… "Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Problems Presented by the Compelling, Heartwrenching Case." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 88.3 (1998): 1121-1146. Endings and Beginnings: Law, Medicine, and Society in Assisted Life and Death. Even the ancient Greeks had pondered over the issue centuries ago, albeit without reaching a definite conclusion about its merits or otherwise. "The Supreme Court and Physician-Assisted Suicide -- The Ultimate Right," Article reproduced in "Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Bioethical Issues," pp. 88-95 Hendin, Herbert "Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the Netherlands: Lessons from the Dutch," 277 Journal of the American Medical Association, (June 4, 1997), p. Killing and Letting Die (Publishing details not provided) EUTHANASIA The word Euthanasia has been the cause of much debate about its legality and whether such a practice is even ethical or not. There are laws in most countries, though, that prevent people from…… While euthanasia may be controversial to some, there are some situations where people are going to do what they are going to do and allowing them the easier and more dignified path is the way to go. In such situations, health professionals are stuck between assisting the patient to die, notably by using an external means, or letting him or her to fight for life until death, something that might be painful, both to the clinicians, the patients, and even the loved ones. [Read More] against Voluntary Euthanasia on Life Support In his essay, Voluntary Euthanasia: A Utilitarian Perspective, Peter Singer reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. Singer, 541 534, 537 Euthanasia Should e Illegal Euthanasia is the act of putting to death painlessly or allowing death, as by withholding extreme medical measures, a person or animal suffering from an incurable, often painful, disease or condition (Euthanasia, Infoplease.com). People hold differing beliefs and opinions in regards to euthanasia. Literature indicated that differences exist between nurses that are new to palliative care and those that have been in the job for quite some time. In more recent times, euthanasia has been the subject of discussion in various forums including the Supreme Court of the United States with similar inconclusive results. 1720-1722 This can ultimately become the justification for refusal to euthanize a person even if they have given their permission. The anti-argument for this cause has mostly been raised from more controversial background, while the pro argument has come up from the liberal camp. Analysis When it comes to the definition of active or passive euthanasia, the difference is pretty clear. Thesis: Singer establishes a solid grounding for the ethicality of legalizing voluntary euthanasia by arguing that the human right to pursue their notion of the good should be respected. Today, medical advances have made it possible to prolong life in patients with no hope of recovery, and the term negative euthanasia has arisen to classify the practice of withholding or withdrawing extraordinary means (e.g., intravenous feeding, respirators, and artificial kidney machines) to preserve life. The term euthanasia basically means the practice of willingly terminating a person's life in order to relieve the person of any suffering or pain. Critical Care Nurses: Practices, Attitudes, and Social and Professional Correlates. There are uncountable joys in life which make life worth enjoying, while there are many hardships which make it tough. However, in some scenarios, people could ask that their life be ended for a variety of other reasons including but not limited to pain and mental…… This issue has attracted various reasons in support and opposition of both the voluntary and involuntary euthanasia. "Advance Directives for Euthanasia in Dementia: How Do They Affect Resident Care in Dutch Nursing Homes? "Other People's Lives: Reflections on Medicine, Ethics, and Euthanasia." Issues in Law & Medicine 27.1 (2011): 51-70. When a truer form of compassion is found in palliative care, the ground shifts to an appeal to human rights, especially to the sovereignty of self- determination." (Gormally, 1997). Euthanasia is categorized as active and passive (Euthanasia.com/definitions). April 15, 2005 euthanasia-voluntary/ When a doctor provides such information to a terminally ill patient it is called "physician-assisted suicide." Both "assisted suicide" and "physician-assisted suicide" are covered under the broad definition of euthanasia. The very point of 'Advanced Directives' is in itself confounding issue as frequently it is the patient's imaginary fears about loss of body functions and pain that drives them to such conclusions. His arguments for euthanasia are effective and compelling, and though directed at physicians, they are of interest to anyone thinking about euthanasia for themselves or a loved one. At times, the difficulties become so severe that people prefer death to life. [Read More] Euthanasia The power to control the destiny of another person's life is an opiate which no person should have the ability to ingest when the control is over the persons life, or death. Rippe, "Silencing the Singer: Antibioethics in Germany," Hastings Center Report, 21, no. Euthanasia is a difficult topic for many people, and opinions about it are often very strong. Despite these reasons and opinions, a middle ground position is the logical solution regarding euthanasia. Experiences of Physicians and Relatives." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 59.6 (2011): 989-96. The questions that are attached to this process lies in the moral and humane aspect. Passive euthanasia means failure to provide life prolonging medical treatment and letting a disease state take its natural course without intervention. Again, my rebuttal to this argument is that proponents of euthanasia are not trigger-happy killers. "Voluntary Euthanasia." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. he findings reveal that the pain is unbearable yet the patients tend to become immune from it, or at least surrender to it. his study focuses on assessing and evaluating the levels of pain that a terminally ill, advanced cancer patient suffers from, particularly during the last four weeks of their life. Taking one's life as a result of the fact that the respective person is expected to suffer inhumane pain for several years until his or her death cannot possibly be compared with murder or suicide. So it is cleanly obvious that in palliative care settings it is not uncommon for patients to succumb to momentary pain and wish for euthanasia but very rarely such requests are persistent. achels discusses the differences between "killing and letting die" (achels 561), and discusses specific cases where allowing the patient to simply die without further treatment could actually prolong their life and their suffering. The issue hinges upon the relationship between the physician and their patient, and the nature of advice, information, and persuasion. Involvement of nurses in caring for patients requesting euthanasia in Flanders (Belgium): a qualitative study. ut opponents insisted on the moral difference between the withholding or withdrawal of treatment when nothing more can be done to significantly reverse the patient's physical state and…… In fact, the importance of this qualification is reflected in arguments favoring euthanasia. They are also often in financial distress because of increasing medical bills. This essay will outline the philosophies of Kant and the Utilitarians, discuss how they look at euthanasia, and give an opinion as…… (Euthanasia: The Disability Perspective on the Right to Die Movement) Euthanasia can be attained either though an intentional process, or by refraining to take an action intentionally. rid=cmed.section.17469 Accessed on 3 May, 2005 Euthanasia: "Should physicians be allowed to assist in patient suicide? Until recently, all forms of euthanasia were illegal in the United States and in most other developed countries but within the past generation, these laws have been liberalized so that citizens in democratic societies increasingly have access to a "good death." Physician-assisted suicide occurs under the guidance of an experienced and qualified physician, who is not legally obliged to agree to the practice. The doctor is not permitted legally or ethically to coerce a patient into dying prematurely and the patient is likewise not ethically or legally allowed to persuade their doctor to intervene on their behalf. "Kant's Four Illustrations." Retrieved online: Guide to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Retrieved online: view.resource.php? "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion." Euthanasia The word euthanasia originates from the Greek, its root words meaning "good" and "death." This understanding lies at the heart of the concept, which in the modern sense is defined as a person choosing to end their own life. Most of the people that seek physician-assisted suicide are suffering from terminal illnesses that cause them a great deal of pain that cannot be properly controlled with medications. The first question will be a definition and distinction between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The disparities which may lead to the desire to avoid being a burden are known to more prevalent with in ethnic minorities, and disadvantaged social groups, were ironically, there is likely to be a higher level of terminal illnesses at younger ages due to the health disparities (Geiger et al., 2007). Counseling and support can ease fear of death and pain. A method for judging the morality of this act is the Principle of Double Effect. Specifically, it is the fine and often invisible line that exists between the presentation of full information to the patient and the use of persuasion on the part of…… For, the case for euthanasia is usually built on the premise that life or the process of dying can prove to be a long and painful process, which slowly robs a person of his or her vitality and dignity. When considered in this light, voluntary euthanasia has the best consequences for both the ill person and others suffering as a result of the illness. [Read More] There is no question, the dying process is one of consummate emotional and physical loss for the individual dying and the individual(s) who is left to repair the life they have put on hold to lovingly usher their loved one out of this world. Ironically, before Dr., Kevorkian deliberately forced the hand of prosecutors by crossing the line between advice and action, all his prior involvement in assisting terminally ill patients to end their lives precisely demonstrated many of the very ethical principles that would be crucial to the application of laws to the physician's role in the choice to end one's life (Humphry, 2002). (2002) Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide for the Dying. " (No) Euthanasia is, quite literally, a "life and death" issue. hat physician-assisted death laws do allow is for…… This is not normally taken in the same context as suicide, but rather as a physician-assisted death, so that the person chooses how and when they will die, and that they may do so in a peaceful and painless manner. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press, 2006. For these individuals, the relief of death is preferred to their continuing suffering. The question of ethical issues for each type will be raised. BBC - Ethics - Euthanasia: Active and passive euthanasia. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from overview/activepassive_1.shtml BBC. BBC - Ethics - Euthanasia: Religion and euthanasia. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from Euthanasia, Should Terminally Ill Patients Be Allowed to End Their Lives Via Assisted Suicide TEMINALLY ILL PATIENTS BE ALLOWED TO END THEI LIVES VIA ASSISTED SUICIDE Euthanasia, notably called assisted killing or mercy killing, is perhaps one of the medical prescriptions that have always raised varied and multifaceted arguments, most of which have never reached any solid conclusion. Interestingly, it is noted that ethnic minorities tend to have a lower level of trust in authorities with regard to decisions made euthanasia and the overall practice (Ward, 1980). Arguments against this act include: the devaluation of life concern, going against various religious belief systems; palliative care options should be provided first; and counseling and support should be first choice options. One of the difficulties in life is in the form of disease. Chapter 4 -- Decisions at Life's End: Existing Law. While medical technology has been creating new conditions by which individuals can live longer, and medical science has entered a new era regarding treatment of conditions which only a few years ago would haven the lives of those thus afflicted, there is one area over which medical science, and public policy, should not be allowed to reign. These opinions generally fall into two distinct categories: those who think everyone should have the right to choose, and those who think the practice should be completely illegal. Background: The practice of medicine means that physicians involved in this work are treading a narrow path…… Is it morally right to commit such action towards your loved one? Active euthanasia means to take measures to end a person's life (Euthanasia.com/definitions). Any legal request for euthanasia would have to be processed for validity by qualified doctors. he purpose of this article as it relates to the topic of euthanasia is that one popular argument for the legalization of euthanasia is that it is inhumane to let a patient suffer. "Character of erminal Illness in the Advanced Cancer Patient: Pain and Other Symptoms During the Last Four Weeks of Life." Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. his article relates to the topic of euthanasia in that it…… Personality and Science: an interdisciplinary discussion. Morality should actually be combined with logics in understanding euthanasia and people need to be more sympathetic and less egocentric regarding individuals who prefer euthanasia as the "safe way out." ibliography: Allen, Jen & Chavez, Sonia & Desimone, Sara & Howard, Debbie & Johnson, Keadron & Lapierre, Lucinda & Montero, Darrel & Sanders, Jerry "Americans' Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide, 1936-2002," Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 33.2 (2006) Dowbiggin, Ian a Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003) Gailey, Elizabeth Atwood Write to Death: News Framing of the Right to Die Conflict, from Quinlan's Coma to Kevorkian's Conviction (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003) Neuhaus, Richard John "The…… Instead of legalizing euthanasia, efforts must therefore be concentrated on improving the palliative care. ": Dutch Culture and the Groningen Protocol." Hastings Center Report 38.4 (2008): 4-7. The exceptions made for impairment and age would open a Pandora's Box of legal precedence. "Part of my point is that the process of the 'allowed to die' can…… "Active and passive Euthanasia." PLEASE ADD BOOK HERE. action=open Page Viewer&doc Id=85664345"Fletcher, Joseph. Sometimes diseases become so painful that the patients lose hope for their recovery and plan death. The subject of euthanasia contains within it a moral boundary over which we dare not cross. Those in favor of the procedure claim that individuals should have a right over the destiny of their own life's course. There are several reasons why people have these deep-seated views regarding the issue, and it is important to address those in order to facilitate a better understanding of ideas and opinions on both sides. [Read More] Works Cited: De Boer, Marike E., Rose-Marie Dro Es, Cees Jonker, Jan A. Do you really think that you are helping that sick person by ending his life? hen the topic of euthanasia is discussed, active euthanasia is typically to what is being referred. Any signs of depression would be properly treated and a reasonable "cooling-off period" be provided to the patients to change their minds. his study attempts to validate this argument by showing what exactly the patient is suffering from. [Read More] This is a collection of twenty-one essays presenting both sides of the euthanasia debate. [Read More] Bibliography: Allen, Jen & Chavez, Sonia & Desimone, Sara & Howard, Debbie & Johnson, Keadron & Lapierre, Lucinda & Montero, Darrel & Sanders, Jerry "Americans' Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide, 1936-2002," Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 33.2 (2006) Dowbiggin, Ian a Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003) Gailey, Elizabeth Atwood Write to Death: News Framing of the Right to Die Conflict, from Quinlan's Coma to Kevorkian's Conviction (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003) Neuhaus, Richard John "The Always Lively Newsletter Catholic Eye Reflects on Why it Is That Older People Who Are Strongly Pro-Life Are Tempted to Succumb to a Measure of Ambivalence When the Subject Turns to Euthanasia," First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2007: 65 Euthanasia (against) In North America most people die that can be called a bad death. This could take the form of improving pain control measures and providing loving and caring service to patients. A major factor underlying whether active or passive euthanasia is legal is whether the doctor intends to kill the patient or not (Lewis, 2009, p. Rachels hits on the intent piece in one of his constructed examples, "Rather, the other factors - the murderer's motive of personal gain, for example, contrasted with the doctor's humanitarian motivation -account for different reactions to the different cases." The Colombian Constitutional Court actually ruled doctors are negligent if they ignore a terminally ill, competent patient's request for active euthanasia, a position which actually moves closer to Rachels' side of the debate (Michlowski, 2009, p. The Canadian Medical Association's inquiry into Belgian euthanasia included asking about the doctors' "explicit intention of hastening the end of life or of enabling the patient to end his or her own life" (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. This intent underlies the principle of "double effect,"…… The Death with Dignity Act and any other forthcoming active euthanasia laws will likely continue to follow the same line of reasoning, i.e.