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Not until the 20th century were the religious (private) and the secular (public) distinguished by some Muslim thinkers and separated formally in certain places such as Turkey.
The period of Islamic conquests and empire building marks the first phase of the expansion of Islam as a religion.
(“a well-trodden path”) was used by pre-Islamic Arabs to denote their tribal or common law.
In Islam it came to mean the example of the Prophet—i.e., his words and deeds as recorded in compilations known as Hadith (in Arabic, Ḥadīth: literally, “report”; a collection of sayings attributed to the Prophet).Although many sectarian movements have arisen within Islam, all Muslims are bound by a common faith and a sense of belonging to a single community.This article deals with the fundamental beliefs and practices of Islam and with the connection of religion and society in the Islamic world.) accepts surrender to the will of Allah (in Arabic, Allāh: God).Allah is viewed as the sole God—creator, sustainer, and restorer of the world.The will of Allah, to which human beings must submit, is made known through the sacred scriptures, the Qurʾān (often spelled Koran in English), which Allah revealed to his messenger, Muhammad.In Islam Muhammad is considered the last of a series of prophets (including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, and Jesus), and his message simultaneously consummates and completes the “revelations” attributed to earlier prophets.Qurʾān (literally, “reading” or “recitation”) is regarded as the verbatim word, or speech, of God delivered to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel.Divided into 114 suras (chapters) of unequal length, it is the fundamental source of Islamic teaching.With the loss of political power during the period of Western colonialism in the 19th and 20th centuries, the concept of the Islamic community (), instead of weakening, became stronger.The faith of Islam helped various Muslim peoples in their struggle to gain political freedom in the mid-20th century, and the unity of Islam contributed to later political solidarity.