Finally, note that you can deviate from the common pattern of introduction followed by quotation.
Weaving the phrases of others into your own prose offers a stylistically compelling way of maintaining control over your source material.
If you include too much quotation in your essay, you will crowd out your own ideas.
Consider quoting a passage from one of your sources if any of the following conditions holds: Condition 3 is especially useful in essays for literature courses.
Don't just parachute quotations into your essay without providing at least some indication of who your source is.
Letting your reader know exactly which authorities you rely on is an advantage: it shows that you have done your research and that you are well acquainted with the literature on your topic.When you introduce a quotation with an incomplete sentence, you usually place a comma after the introductory phrase.However, it has become grammatically acceptable to use a colon rather than a comma: If you are not sure whether to punctuate your introduction to a quotation, mentally remove the quotation marks, and ask yourself whether any punctuation is still required.Once in a while, you can reverse the pattern of quotation followed by analysis.A felicitously worded or an authoritative quotation can, on occasion, nicely clinch an argument.If you remove text, then replace the missing text with an ellipsis -- three periods surrounded by spaces: If the omitted text occurs between sentences, then put a space after the period at the end of sentence and follow that by an ellipsis. (See Orwell on Dickens, above.) Many people overuse ellipses at the beginning and end of quotations. If you need to alter or replace text from the original, enclose the added text within square brackets.Use an ellipsis in either place only when your reader might otherwise mistake an incomplete sentence for a complete one: Abraham Lincoln begins "The Gettysburg Address" with a reminder of the act upon which the United States was founded: "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation . You may, for example, need to alter text to ensure that pronouns agree with their antecedents.The following offers just one way of introducing the above quotation: , "we must turn to Roman antiquity to find the first justification of war, together with the first notion that there are just and unjust wars" (12).Since the quotation is relatively short, the brief introduction works.Visit the U of T Writing website's page on verbs for referring to sources.If your quotation is lengthy, you should almost always introduce it with a full sentence that helps capture how it fits into your argument.