The use of organized mathematics in Egypt has been dated back to the third millennium BC.Egyptian mathematics was dominated by arithmetic, with an emphasis on measurement and calculation in geometry.The Egyptian calendar was introduced about 4241 BC.
The earliest Egyptian texts were written around 1800 BC.
They consisted of a decimal numeration system with separate symbols for the successive powers of 10 (1, 10, 100, and so forth), just like the Romans (Berggren). Numbers were represented by writing down the symbol for 1, 10, 100, and so on as many times as the unit was in the given number.
Inundation was the sowing period, coming-forth was the growing period, and summer was the harvest period.
They also determined a year to be 365 days so they were very close to the actual year of 365 ¼ days (Gillings 235).
Multiplication was based on successive doublings, and division was based on the inverse of this process (Berggren).
The original of the oldest elaborate manuscript on mathematics was written in Egypt about 1825 BC. The Ahmes manuscript was not written to be a textbook, but for use as a practical handbook.
The Egyptians divided their year into 3 seasons that were 4 months each.
These seasons included inundation, coming-forth, and summer.
Using this system, they were able to solve all problems of arithmetic that involved fractions, as well as some elementary problems in algebra (Berggren).
The science of mathematics was further advanced in Egypt in the fourth millennium BC than it was anywhere else in the world at this time.